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Teacher's Guide
Unit Two: Pioneer
Arrow Activity Tasks

Students will:

  • define pioneer.
  • learn about Dr. Jane’s pioneering research methods.
  • read a chapter from Dr. Jane’s book, In the Shadow of Man, to view her research in action.
  • research basic information about the animals they choose to study.
  • conduct observations.
  • prepare a formal lab report.
  • enrich the lives of their subjects.
  • complete journal entries discussing how their culture treats captive and wild animals.
Arrow Dr. Jane’s Lesson
While Dr. Jane was studying chimpanzees in Africa, she developed methods of research no one had used before. Many researchers strongly disagreed with her and did not take her seriously. Despite this criticism, Dr. Jane recognized that her methods were very effective, so she continued to use and improve them over the years. Students can review this early part of Dr. Jane’s researching years and learn that it is possible to have the courage to do something no one has done before and, if it is effective, continue to do it despite criticism from others.

Arrow Duration
  • Part 1 – 15 minutes
  • Part 2 – 2 hours
  • Part 3 – Time will vary depending on chosen enrichment activity
Arrow Materials
  • Notebook paper
  • Data sheets
  • Pen or pencil
  • Hard surface for writing
  • Miscellaneous materials to create enrichment items
Arrow Connecting to the Content
People learn best by doing and in this section, students study an animal of their choice just as they would if they were ethologists. They are given the chance to pioneer their own form of notetaking in a free-form method and then organize the information with data sheets commonly used today. Part of being an effective researcher is improving the lives of the research subjects when possible. Students are encouraged to take on this responsibility by creating enrichment materials for the animals they study.

Arrow Procedure

Part 1: Explore Dr. Goodall’s Pioneering Chimpanzee Research

  1. Direct the class to Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary to find the definition of pioneer. Direct students to the word’s etymology and variety of meanings.
  2. Have students view Dr. Jane’s scrapbook to learn about her pioneering method of research.
  3. Ask the class to read a chapter from Dr. Jane’s book, In the Shadow of Man. Ask them why Dr. Jane’s first two big discoveries were so important. Do they have a sense of their importance for Dr. Jane and the scientific community at large?

    Part 2: Collect Data

  4. Have the class research basic information about the animals they choose to observe.
    • If they are observing chimpanzees, have them access resources listed on the Observer primate research project page.
    • If they are observing other animals, have them use the library or internet to learn basic information about their animals.
  5. Tell students to find one behavior they are particularly interested in observing.
  6. Have students divide into groups of two and go to their research sites. Students record all categories of animal observation on regular lined notebook paper. One person records the behavior of one individual and the other person records the behavior of the whole group.
  7. Direct the class to record their observations on their data sheets.
  8. Have students prepare a formal report of their observations and invite them to share their findings with the class. Each report should contain a hypothesis, procedure, data, drawings, and conclusions.

    Part 3: Help Improve Lives of Animals

  9. Challenge students to think of ways they can improve the lives of the subjects they studied. Refer them to the online resources and projects provided.
  10. Have the class create the enrichment objects (primates in captivity or animals in the community).
  11. Have students reflect on their culture and recent captive animal observations. How do they feel captive and/or wild animals are treated in this culture? Have them write down their reflections in their journal entries.
Arrow Assessment

Have students:

  • demonstrate the meaning of the word pioneer.
  • demonstrate their knowledge of the animals they chose to observe.
  • explain if they had a preferred method of taking free-form notes and share their results.
  • share either the enrichment items they created or their plans for building enrichment.
  • share how they feel captive and/or wild animals are treated in this culture.
Arrow Extensions
Students may choose to have an ongoing project similar to Amelia’s Wild Friends.

Arrow Terms
  • Ethologist – Person who studies animal behavior.
  • Habituating – To make used to something; more specifically, the process ethologists use to accustom the animals they are studying to human presence, done by continually putting themselves in the vicinity of the animals; enables ethologists to get close enough to view the animals and increases the chance of seeing natural behaviors.
Teacher's Guide
Unit One
  ArrowTree Exercise
Unit Two
Unit Three
Unit Four
 Related Topics:
  ArrowABC's of Chimp Behavior
  ArrowDr. Jane's Scrapbook
  ArrowMultiple Intelligences
  ArrowOnline Dictionary
  ArrowTree Sketching Guide
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