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Chimpanzee Behavior
Tool Use
Another of Dr. Jane's famous discoveries is that chimpanzees make and use tools, an ability that was once only attributed to humans. Gombe chimps use objects such as stems, twigs, branches, leaves, and rocks in nine different ways to accomplish different tasks which assist in feeding, drinking, cleaning themselves, investigating out of reach objects, and as weapons. Tool use is acquired through observational learning and is passed from one generation to the next. Therefore, different chimp communities use objects for many different purposes, and chimpanzee cultures are formed.
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Jane's observation:
Cautiously I moved around so that I could see what he was doing. He was squatting beside the red earth mound of a termite nest, and as I watched I saw him carefully push a long grass stem down into a hole in the mound. After a moment he withdrew it and picked something from the end with his mouth. I was too far away to make out what he was eating, but it was obvious that he was actually using a grass stem as a tool. On the eighth day of my watch David Greybeard arrived again, together with Goliath, and the pair worked there for two hours. I could see much better: I observed how they scratched open the sealed-over passage entrances with a thumb or forefinger. I watched how they bit the ends off their tools when they became bent, or used the other end, or discarded them in favor of new ones. Goliath once moved at least fifteen yards from the heap to select a firm-looking piece of vine, and both males often picked three or four stems while they were collecting tools, and put the spares beside them on the ground until they wanted them. Most exciting off all, on several occasions they picked small leafy twigs and prepared them for use by stripping off the leaves. This was the first recorded example of a wild animal not merely using an object as a tool, but actually modifying an object and thus showing the crude beginnings of toolmaking.

Source: In The Shadow of Man, p. 35, pp. 36-37.
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